Turkey in Brief

turkey in brief - study in turkey

Modern Turkey was established in 1923 by national hero Mustafa Kemal, who was later honoured with the title Ataturk or “Father of the Turks” from the Anatolian remains of the vanquished Ottoman Empire. Under his rule, the country introduced comprehensive civil, financial, and political reforms. An experiment in multi-party politics contributed to the opposition Democratic Party’s electoral win in 1950 and the successful transition of control following a time of one-party rule.

Since then, Turkish political groups have expanded, but government has been disrupted by waves of turmoil and occasional military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), ultimately contributing to the restoration of democratic authority to citizens in each situation. In 1997, the military again supported engineer the ouster of the then Islamic-oriented government-popularly called a “post-modern coup.” Turkey interfered militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to keep Greece from taking over the island and has subsequently served as guardian of the “Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus,” which is recognised only by Turkey.

Turkey joined the UN in 1945, then left NATO in 1952. Turkey became an affiliate member of the European Community in 1964; during the past decade, it implemented several changes to improve its government and economy, allowing it to launch talks with the European Union on accession.

Location
Southeast Europe and Southwest Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosphorus is historically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Mediterranean Sea and the Aegean Sea, between Greece and Syria

Geographic Coordinates
39 00 N, 35 00 E

Area
total: 780,580 sq km
land: 770,760 sq km
water: 9,820 sq km

Geographic Divisions

  • Marmara Region
  • Black Sea Region
  • Eagean Region
  • Mediterranean Region
  • Central Anatolia Region
  • Eastern Anatolia Region
  • Southeastern Anatolia Region

Cities

Turkey has in total 81 cities:
Adana, Adiyaman, Afyonkarahisar, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Icel (Mersin), Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir, Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak

Land Boundaries

total: 2,648 km
border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 km

Coastline
7,200 km

Climate
temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior

Terrain
high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m

Natural Resources
coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower

Land Use
arable land: 29.81%
permanent crops: 3.39%
other: 66.8% (2005)

Population
71,892,807 (July 2008 est.)

Median Age
total: 29 years
male: 28.8 years
female: 29.2 years (2008 est.)

Population Growth
1.013% (2008 est.)

Life Expectancy
total population: 73.14 years
male: 70.67 years
female: 75.73 years (2008 est.)

Religion
Muslim 99% (mostly Sunni), other 1 % (mostly Christians and Jews)

Government Name
Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti)
Turkey (Türkiye)

Goverenment Type
republican parliamentary democracy

Capital
name: Ankara
Geographic Coordinates: 39 56 N, 32 52 E
Time Difference: UTC+2
Daylight Saving Time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Foundation of the Republic (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)
29 October 1923 (National Holiday)

Flag Description
red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening

Legal System
civil law system derived from various European continental legal systems; note – member of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), although Turkey claims limited derogations on the ratified European Convention on Human Rights; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage
18 years of age; universal

Executive Branch
Chief of state: President Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (since 28 August 2014)
Head of government: Prime Minister Binali YILDIRIM (since 24 May 2016)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister
Elections: president elected by the National Assembly for one seven-year term; prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament
Note: president-elect must have a two-thirds majority of the National Assembly on the first two ballots and a simple majority on the third ballot

Legislative Branch
Unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
Elections: last held on 22 July 2007 (next to be held on November 2012)
Election results: percent of vote by party – AKP 46.7%, CHP 20.8%, MHP 14.3%, independents 5.2%, and other 13.0%; seats by party – AKP 341, CHP 112, MHP 71, independents 26; note – seats by party as of 17 December 2007 – AKP 340, CHP 87, MHP 70, DTP 20, DSP 13, independents 6, other 12, vacant 2 (DTP entered parliament as independents; DSP entered parliament on CHP’s party list); only parties surpassing the 10% threshold are entitled to parliamentary seats

Judicial Branch
Constitutional Court; High Court of Appeals (Yargitay); Council of State (Danistay); Court of Accounts (Sayistay); Military High Court of Appeals; Military High Administrative Court

International Organization Participation
ADB (nonregional members), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CERN (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Economic Overview
Turkey’s diverse economy is a complicated mixture of new manufacturing and commerce, coupled with a conventional agriculture market that still accounts for over 35 percent of employment. It has a large and increasingly rising private sector, but the state still plays a major role in basic manufacturing, finance, transportation, and communication. The largest manufacturing sector is textiles and garments, which accounts for one third of manufacturing employment; with the completion of the global quota scheme, it faces intense rivalry on foreign markets. Inside Turkey’s export mix, however, certain sectors, especially the automobile and electronics industries, are growing in significance.

Real GNP development has surpassed 6 per cent in several years, but in 1994, 1999 and 2001 this rapid expansion was disrupted by significant declines in production. With the introduction of economic reforms, the economy is turning around, and GDP growth hit 9% in 2004, accompanied by approximately 5% annual growth in 2005-07. Inflation in 2005 dropped to 7.7 per cent-a 30-year low-but in 2007 it rose up to 8.5 per cent. Despite the fast economic growth from 2002-07, mainly attributed to increased foreign interest in emerging markets, IMF support, and tighter fiscal policy, a high current account deficit and high external debt tend to pressure the economy.

The hope is that more economic and legal changes and prospective EU membership would improve foreign direct investment.

FDI’s portfolio valuation now sits at about $85bn. Sales in privatisation are reportedly equivalent to $21 billion. In May 2006, oil began to flow via the Baku-Tblisi-Ceyhan pipeline, representing a significant landmark that would carry up to 1 million barrels a day from the Caspian to market. The economic dynamics are stable and marked by solid economic development and significant foreign investment. However, Turkey’s large current-account gap leaves the economy exposed to volatile market confidence changes.

Agricultural Products
tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulse, citrus; livestock

Industries
textiles, food processing, autos, electronics, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper

Airports
117 (2007)

Roadways
total: 426,906 km
paved: 177,550 km (includes 1,892 km of expressways)
unpaved: 249,356 km (2004)